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DRAWING THE CROQUIS: BACK THREE-QUARTER VIEW

  1. Begin by drawing in the balance line running vertically through the top of the head. Draw the head as an oval at a slight angle to the vertical. Draw a center-back line running from the center of the top of the head along the middle of the back of the head and down the back of the neck. In the turned head seen in the back three-quarter view this line, as with the front three-quarter view, divides the head in the proportions 3 to 1. The rest of the figure is also divided in these proportions between the nearer side and the further-away foreshortened side. It is also useful to draw in a vertical balance line as the center front line returns to this line at different points. Draw in the neck as a cylinder extending down at an angle (the same slope as the head) about one-half heads length.
  2. First draw in the waist at 3 as slightly upward-curving arc. The waist is seen as the same width in three-quarter view as in front view-about two -thirds of the length of a head. Plot in the position of the center-back line from the back of the head to the waist. This line will follow the position of the spine and curves back to meet the vertical balance line at the waist. Draw in the shoulders. As in the other views the shoulders are 1 1/2 heads wide, sitting at the base of the neck. The shoulders overlap the neck on the near side so the neck appears slightly shorter in the front than on the other foreshortened side. Indicate the edge of the shoulder as an oval. Draw in the outline of the bust not the near side with the apex of the bust at number 2. Draw in the shoulder blades between 1 1/2 and 2 as shallow half-moons.
  3. Draw in the upper arms as cylinders beginning at the edge of the shoulders and extending to the waist at 3. When arms are relaxed they hang naturally behind the torso, and in the angled views of the figure this is noticeable.
  4. Draw in the center-back line for the hip area. This line curves out in the opposite direction to the center-back line down the upper part of the body and ends at the bottom of the spine where it is hidden by the curve of the buttock. Draw in the outline of the hip on the near side. It extends out from the waist at a diagonal ending at 4, its widest point. Draw in the sphere of the right buttock as a hook shape looping from the base of the spine. Draw in the hip and buttock on the other side, also as a hook shape parallel to the one on the near side. Draw in the lower arms from elbow to wrist and begin to outline the top of the legs.
  5. Extend the legs down from the other edges of the hips slimming to the knee at number 6. Note the nearer leg appears wider than far leg because of the overlap and foreshortening. Indicate the back of the knee with a half circle or vertical lines representing the tendon. Define the front of the knee by adding a bump to the line of the leg.
  6. The back of the lower legs slope away from the knee around the calf and back in to the ankle. The front of the lower legs extend from the knee to the ankle, sloping slightly directly below the knee and then becoming almost vertical in the lower part to the ankle. At this point hands and feet can be drawn in as simple shapes; later in the chapter we discuss how to draw them in detail.

 

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